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How Pro-LGBT Muslims Have Deviated From Mainstream Islam

How Pro-LGBT Muslims Deviated From Mainstream Islam

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Abu Muhammad Abdullaah Flaming St. Fleur




An online article from the Human Rights Campaign newsletter entitled “Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Islam-Sunni and Shi’a” (“Stances of Faiths on LGBT Issues” 2018) made mentioned of a growing number of Islamic scholars, mainly in the West have started re-examining Islamic teachings on same-sex relationships.  This re-examining the teachings was not only on same-sex relationships but also to see if the disapproval of LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning) people is a misinterpretation. However, by taking this stance have pro-LGTB (Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and Bisexual) Muslims deviated from mainstream Islam? The importance of this topic cries out a dire need of information for clarification as more and more pro LGBTQ movements and its supporters are growing within Islam and deconstructing Islam fundamentals in order to fit their desire or/and climate of the current time. My research was primarily based on the method of the Salaf us-Saalih (The Pious predecessor’s) which is to relate all matters of the religion back to the Qur’an and Sunnah with the understanding of the Companions of our beloved Prophet, last messenger and slave of Allah, Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon Him) the son of Abdullaah and the following two generations afterwards. I believe this is the best methodology as it is dealing with the two primary sources of law in Islam and is also in line with the method of the great Imams who followed them in attempt to understanding Islamic rulings. With keeping with the tradition of Islamic jurisprudence scholarship besides providing dalil naqli (argumentative proof derived from (Islamic) textual source, taught and transmitted). I also added dalil aqli (argumentative proof derived from logic, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning or other modes of intelligence).  The purpose of my research is to analyze the claim put forth by Muslim pro LGBT supporters and examine if their position is in line with the Qur’an and Sunnah and also as the tradition of mainstream Islam passed down from 1400yrs ago until today. As a result of my research my position on the theory put forth by Muslim pro LGBTQ supporters are in contrary to Islam and its core values.

When examining some of the ayaat of the Qur’an put forth in my argument one thing immediately should be noted is that Allah, the mighty and majestic unmistakably refers to the man and women as pairs. Besides mentioning the male and female as pairs, when citing the creation of mankind, the male and female are commonly associated in the same ayah with the Arabic letter waw; as being donated as a particle of connection, conjunction, with and also (additionally).  Despite the comparison and reference to the male and female I’ve mentioned from the Qur’an, perhaps one of the richest evidence’s put forth is from the Sunnah of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). From the numerous ahaadith available on the matter I placed into view those well known amongst the Sunni community and openly prohibit LGBT behavior. Along with the ahaadith put forth to keep this paper at minimum length, I have also selected those ahaadith which points out and enforces the hudud[1] due to the lewd behavior emphasizing the severity of the matter at topic. Such acts are clearly mentioned amongst the major sins from the great scholars of Islam.[2]Another reason to point out the hadiths citing the hudud is to express among the Sunni school of thoughts Jurists had no disagreement in punishment for such LGBT actions. Rather the disagreement was not in the punishment but the type of punishment. However, I am of the opinion the greatest of evidence among what has been cited in my argument and those before me, is the condemnation of the “act of the people of Lot”. What is more vibrant of the matter is that the criticism context comes from both the Qur’an and in the authentic Sunnah (The Prophetic tradition).


Islam emphasizes the importance of family as the family is the building blocks of society. Prior to creating a family within the frame of that which is deemed praiseworthy, and permissible, it necessitates marriage. The Qur’an vehemently expresses the importance of both marriage and family. Such as Surat l-rum [interpretation of the meaning] “And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect. (Ar-Rum; 30:21, Muhsin Khan) Also, in surat l-fur’qan [interpretation of the meaning] “And those who say: “Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes and make us leaders for the Muttaqun (pious)” (Al Furqan; 25:74, Muhsin Khan).

Evaluating the ayaat of the blessed Qur’an Kareem about the male and female both are mentioned in numerous versus either as pairs or connected within the same ayah (expressing their interrelation relationship and unison). Surat fatir states [interpretation of the meaning] “And Allah did create you (Adam) from dust, then from Nutfah (male and female discharge semen drops i.e., Adam’s offspring), then He made you pairs (male and female). And no female conceives or gives birth, but with His Knowledge…” (Al Fatir; 35:11, Muhsin Khan) One should take heed this verse Allah Jalla Wa Ala mentions “…made you in pairs” indicating the male and the female. This understanding of male and female can be expounded from the verse surat l-nur “Bad statements are for bad people (or bad women for bad men) and bad people for bad statements (or bad men for bad women). Good statements are for good people (or good women for good men) and good people for good statements (or good men for good women) …” (An-Nur; 24:26, Muhsin Khan) Another translation of Dr. Ghali states “Wicked women (are) for wicked men, and wicked men (are) for wicked women; and good women (are) for good men, and good men (are) for good women…” Also understood from surat l-qiyaamah “And made him in two sexes, male and female” (Al-Qiyaamah: 75:39, Muhsin Khan) and surat l-najm, “And that He (Allah) creates the pairs, male and female,” (An-Najm; 53:45, Muhsin Khan) From surat fatir, the verse further continues “…no female conceives or gives birth…” Here we should keep in mind the natural disposition of the female necessitates the male sperm to impregnate the female to give birth. From this verse we can imply the relationship between male and female is the natural disposition for mankind as it is the norm for the man to impregnate the women for her to reproduce.[3] To emphasize on the unison of the male and female as pairs and mate’s in surat l-zukh’ruf mentions “Enter Paradise, you and your wives, in happiness.” (Az-Zukh’ruf; 43:70, Muhsin Khan) Majority of the Qur’an English translators of this verse interpreted the verse as “you and your wives”, however they were some such as Dr. Ghali, Ali Unal interpreted the verse as “…you and your spouses…”  Ibn Kathir commentated on the verse means “your counterparts.” (Ibn, 2000) This explanation and interpretations of the verse if not clear enough should also emphasize scholars of our tradition have always understood this verse and many previous stated verses referring to the man and women. From my limited research no one of our past tradition has understood the terms “pairs” “spouses” referring a man and man relationship, nor women and women relationship. Thus, the natural disposition for mankind intimate, communal relationship, are men with women, women with men which is no different than Adam (peace be upon him) and Eve (peace be upon her). Anything outside of this realm is contrary to what Allah relayed to His Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon Him) and is deemed sinful, thus needing rectification.


One may still argue the fact the terms “spouse” “pairs” in the Qur’an Kareem are vague and does not specify men and women. Nevertheless, if anyone were trying to alter specific terms, meanings and perspectives put forth from the Qur’an Kareem the clarification of it would likely manifest in the Sunnah of our beloved Prophet, Messenger of Allah, best of the creation Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abd-al-Muttalib ibn Hashim (Peace and Blessings be upon Him). His wife, Mother of the Believers, Aiesha (May Allah be pleased with her) mentioned in reply to a question she was posed about His character she stated his character was the Qur’an. From the various benefits of the Sunnah; one is preservation of the fundamental meanings and enactment of the Qur’an. In fact, with in the prophetic traditions comes the vibrant prohibition of homosexuality, transgenderism and lesbianism and its likes.

A hadith which comes in the sahih, Abdur- Rahman, the son of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri narrated from his father the Messenger said” A man should not see the private parts of another man, and a woman should not see the private parts of another women and a man should not lie with another man under one covering, and a woman should not lie with another woman under one covering.” (Sahih Muslim, 338)[4] It’s also in Sunnan Abu Dawood narrated by Abu Hurairah with the extra wordings at the end “…women without covering their private parts except a child or a father…” (Abu Dawood, 4018)[5] This hadith graded authentic by Muhaddith, Shaykh Al-Albani, has several points which should be taken into consideration which takes Muslim LGBT supporters out the fold of mainstream Islam, and even to kufr (disbelief) depending on their acceptance of the legislation. It is not permissible for a woman to see another women’s private parts with the exception of breasts when breastfeeding a baby. Nor can a woman sleep with another woman in the same bed (without covering their private parts). The same ruling applies for men; it is impermissible for a man to see another man’s private parts and it’s impermissible for a man to sleep in the same bed with another man. If it’s prohibited to see the private parts of the same gender then using qiyaas (analogical deduction) what about intimacy (sexual relations) which is far beyond seeing? With no doubt any sincere, slave of Allah should come to this logical understanding.

From the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia, by Saiful Azhar bin Saadon is a compilation of Hadith Sahih on behavior of LGBT. Its compilation focuses on some hadith which tackles the issues related to LGBT behavior and also solely on the issues regard it. From it the first hadith presented was related from Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (May Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet of Allah said, “If a woman comes upon a woman, they are both adulteresses, if a man comes upon a man, they are both adulteresses.” (al-Bayhaqi dalam Su’ab al-Iman, 5075) The apparent meaning of this hadith is clearly prohibiting any and all forms of homosexual and lesbianism relations. Such shameful, wicked acts scholars have labeled them amongst the major sins of Islam since their punishment is legislated in Islamic Law and the people who commit these heinous sins is threatened in this life and the hereafter.  From Sunna an-Nasa’i, Aiesha, Mother of The Believers (May Allah be pleased with her) related from the Prophet of Allah  “It is not permissible to shed the blood of a Muslim except in three cases: An adulterer who had been married, who should be stoned to death; a man who killed another man intentionally, who should be killed; and a man who left Islam and waged war against Allah, the Might and Sublime, and His Messenger, who should be killed, or crucified, or banished from the land.”

The severity of the sin can be judged by its punishment, which from this hadith for the adulterer is to be stoned to death. In regards to stoning and other hudud of Islamic Law it should be clear once the proof is established, accepted in the court of law to the judge, in an Islamic state governed by Islamic Law these obligations enjoined by Allah must be carried out. This is taken from the athaar from Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him)[6] It should also be made mention transgender, bisexual, cross-sexual, transsexual, unisexual any man who dresses like a women or women who dresses like a man the Messenger of Allah have cursed them. It comes from Sunnan Abu Dawood, related by Abu Hurairah “Cursed the man who dressed like women and the women who dressed like a man”[7] (Abu Dawood, 4098) The hadith from Abu Dawood has been graded Sahih by Shaykh Al-Albani. A similar hadith comes from the Sahih, with a prescribed punishment narrated by Ibn Abbas “The Prophet (ﷺ) cursed the effeminate men and those women who assume the similitude (manners) of men. He also said, “Turn them out of your houses.” He turned such-and-such person out, and `Umar also turned out such-and-such person.”[8] (Sahih al-Bukhari, 6834)

Within this hadith comes the prescription by the Prophet of Allah “Turn them out your houses” to expel such effeminate men and women who acts, dress, conduct themselves as men. Such banishment is used to stop this reprehensible act from spreading within the Muslim community. It is also used to dis-communicate the wrongdoer from their particular acquaintances and the rest of the Muslim society. (Yusof, M.Z. bin., Abdul-Kadir, N bin., Ibrahim, M. bin., Ahmad, Khader bin., Noor, M. bin., Saadon, S.A.bin, 2015) “At the end of the narration it mentions Umar Al-Khattab also turned out so and so is also strengthening the prohibition as he also enacted the same eviction as The Prophet. This should be clear indication of the practice of expelling them yet also the perspective understanding of the circumstances was passed down in this tradition of ours till today.

The People of Lut

Perhaps the most authoritative evidence in proving Muslim pro-LGBT supporters is outside of the mainstream Islam is the story of The Prophet Lut (Lot) and his people. It is also related in the Old Testament, and the New Testament of the Bible, known as Sodom and Gomorrah. These two cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are also mentioned in the Qur’an Kareem and hadiths. Like all other Prophets and Messenger’s, Prophet Lut (Peace be upon Him) was sent to his people to call them to the acknowledgement and worship of the uniqueness, and oneness of Allah ta’ala alone (At-Taweed), to be upright people and to abandon the shameful immoral acts such as sodomy along with all forms of homosexuality. The people of Lut were the first to commit such acts as the Qur’an states in surat l- a’raf “And (remember) Lut (Lot), when he said to his people: “Do you commit the worst sin such as none preceding you has committed in the ‘Alamin (mankind and jinns)?” next verse, 81 continues “Verily, you practice your lusts on men instead of women. Nay, but you are a people transgressing beyond bounds (by committing great sins). (Al A’Raf; 7:80-81, Muhsin Khan) Two things we should stress from both verses; 1) It clearly states the people of Lut are in iniquity 2) It also clarify their reason of their iniquity which are the actions of immorality leaving no ambiguousness about it. This immorality is the acts of sodomy and it’s like. These ayaat are prohibiting all acts of homosexuality as the entire cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, the people of Lut, both male and female was indulged with these immoral acts. To further collaborate my perspective, is in surat l-naml… [interpretation of the meaning of the verse]

“And (remember) Lout (Lot)! When he said to his people. Do you commit Al-Fahishah (evil, great sin, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, sodomy, etc.) while you see (one another doing evil without any screen, etc.)?”

“Do you approach men in your lusts rather than women? Nay, but you are a people who behave senselessly.”

“There was no other answer given by his people except that they said: “Drive out the family of Lout (Lot) from your city. Verily, these are men who want to be clean and pure!”

So, We saved him and his family, except his wife. We destined her to be of those who remained behind

And We rained down on them a rain (of stones). So evil was the rain of those who were warned.

The act of the people of Lut here was labeled as Al-Fahishah which an Arabic word is well known for evil, shameful, unlawful sexual intercourse, lewdness and indecency. “Do you approach men in your lusts rather than women” once again clarifies the act of the people of Lut with no ambiguity which one can deny. …” Nay, but you are a people of who behave senselessly” shows this is not logical nor the natural disposition for men to enter relations with men. The punishment of his people here was a rain of stones and in surat l-qamar also express a violent tornado with the shower of stones which shows the wrath of Allah, The Most high, for such grievous sins. Surat Hud also describes the punishment turning the cities upside down, and rained down brimstones hard as baked clay, spread layer on layer (Al-Hud; 11:82, Muhsin Khan).  Such the people of Lut, Ad, and Thamud are examples for all the ummah of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be upon Him) and the rest of mankind in general to bear witness.

If the Qur’an was not clear enough for anyone to take heed once again the hadiths about the people of Lut should be a clear warning as well.  From Jami at-Tirmidhi, narrated by Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with Him and His Father) that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whomever you find doing the actions of the people of Lut then kill the one doing it, and the one it is done to.”[9] (Tirmidhi, 1456) This hadith Hasan comes in Tirmidhi ‘s sunnan, the Book of Al-Hudud, with the chapter entitled “What Has Been Related About the Punishment of The Sodomite”. The great Hadith scholar, in his time, Tirmidhi complied various narrations in the chapter about the subject at hand, which vehemently expresses Islam’s view on the sexuality of LGBTQ people. The hadith is clearly showing the prescribed punishment for such lewd acts committed. Likewise, from Sunnan Ibn Majah in the Book of Hudud comes from a what is narrated by Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with Him) said in concerning those who commit the action of the people of Lut “Stone the upper and the lower, stone them both.”[10] (Ibn Majah, 2562) How much unambiguous and precise can these prophetic statements be, warning and threatening the Muslim community of such acts.


There is a phenomenon of Muslim clerics from the west putting forth the argument of scripture vs interpretation. Such argument entails the religion has been interpreted in a particular way, but the scripture does not put forth the same exact perspective. In fact, gay Muslim cleric Scott Siraj Kugle says “In the Qur’an there is no word that explicitly describes homosexual or transgender persons; the Arabic terms were invented after the Qur’an revelation by medieval jurists and contemporary journalist, doctors and social critics.” (Toesland, 2019) Gay Muslim cleric Daayiee Abdullah in the US holds the view of homosexuality as a sin is more of tradition than scripture. “Many traditions are locked into a particular time, place and culture-they’re not necessarily appropriate for us today or for people who will be worshipping in 50 years from now.” (Toesland, 2019)

The argument put forth by Scott Siraj Kugle that no word explicitly describes homosexual or transgender person I find invalid. Looking for a specific word for the terminology does not invalidate the fact that in description of the act itself is stated. Such is in Surah an-Naml mentioned earlier “Do you approach men in your lusts rather than women” (about the people of Lut). Also, the punishment of the people of Lut also indicates its prohibition of their acts as all societies who rejected the Prophets which was sent to them had their consequences. Lecturer, journal writer of Christopher van der Krogt writer of the article “Homosexuality and Islam: What does the Qur’an actually say about gay people?” (Krogt, 2016) argues “The story itself is not clear on whether the inhabitants were destroyed simply because of their sexuality or because of other factors-inhospitality for example or inappropriate sexual conduct. This is a crucial distinction” (Krogt, 2016). However, this argument is dubious in many ways. First it should be mentioned there is no recording or example in the Qur’an which the people of a Prophet where he was sent to, was punished simply for inhospitality? Also, when reading the many of ayaat mentioning the people of Lut, the majority of context of Lut and his people was based upon Prophet Lut calling them to the worship of Allah warning them and advising them to decease of their immoral indecency and lewd acts. These ayaat is numerous in comparison to minuscule ayaat of inhospitality or those mentioning the wanting to drive Prophet Lut (Peace be upon Him) out of the town,

Gay Imam Daayiee Abdullah argues that the traditions interpretation is “…locked into a particular time, place and culture—they’re not necessarily appropriate for us today or for people who will be worshipping in 50 years from now.” (Toesland, 2019) In actuality his statement has many flaws and shows inconsistency with history. As for as the interpretation being of a particular time, place and culture one cannot deny the story of Sodom and Gomorrah which is also related through all Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity) overall in general is held in the same context as in Islam. All three faiths have always understood the context of Sodom and Gomorrah historically for homosexuality, sodomy behavior amongst the males of the two towns. In fact, even if we would allude to ignoring the scholarship of all three faiths opinions or “traditions” or time on the passage of Sodom and Gomorrah the bible itself tells it all. In the book of Leviticus 18:22 “You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination”. There are various verses that indicate the view of homosexuality, sodomy is a prohibited act and is amongst the wicked and major sins. In book of Genesis 18:20 states “Then the Lord said, “Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great and their sin is very grave,” How about the book of Jude 1:7, “Just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire.” Book 1 Timothy 1:9-10 “Understanding this, that the law is not laid down for the just but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for those who strike their fathers and mothers, for murderers, the sexually immoral, men who practice homosexuality, enslavers, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine,” Book  2 of Peter 2:6-9 states “If by turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes he condemned them to extinction, making them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly; and if he rescued righteous Lot, greatly distressed by the sensual conduct of the wicked (for as that righteous man lived among them day after day, he was tormenting his righteous soul over their lawless deeds that he saw and heard); then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment,”

These versus are clearly indicates that the interpretation of The People of Lut or Sodom and Gomorrah were not based upon scholar’s perspective due to time, culture or place. Though we do not use the bible as evidence, we can conclude from the many and many verses quoted it allude to the same conception/ condemnation of The People of Lut due to their immorality. We should also be able to conclude the understanding from all three Abrahamic faiths in general context is one. This shows it is not merely an interpretation factor rather the text itself clearly imply the understanding.


In conclusion Muslim Pro LGBT supporters are outside of mainstream Islam as the evidence against it (Lesbian, Gay Bisexual, and Transgenderism) is numerous from the Qur’an, Sunnah and qiyas. Also, from previous scripture’s notating the same abomination of such practices, views and there is nothing in the light which endorses neither this type of ideology from Islam nor the other Abrahamic faiths. Muslim pro LGBT supporters may lack one of the key ingredients necessary in Islam which is submission. Muslim Pro-LGBT supporters should abandon this view and distant themselves from such its likes, people and lewd wicked acts committed of them. Such LGBT positions held are contrary to the mainstream Islam and tend to develop overtime; as it starts with one opinionative view on an issue clear cut, then denial of some passages and untimely one abandons prayer and then abandon the religion in totality. In fact with such numerous clear cut evidence presented, one who denies its legislation can possibly fall into the category of disbelief. We ask Allah to rectify their affairs of this life and the hereafter. We also ask Allah to guide them and guide us as success is only with Allah. It is a must they sincerely turn back to Allah as He is Ar-Raheem, Al-Afuww, Al-Haleem, Al-Waduwd, Al-Ghaffoor.




Ibn, K. I. U., Mubārakfūrī, S. -R., & Ibn, K. I. U. (2000). Tafsir ibn Kathir: (abridged). Riyadh: Darussalam.


Stances of Faith on LGBTQ Issues: Islam-Sunni and Shi’a (2018, August 1st) Human Rights Campaign Retrieved from


Toesland, F., (2019, April 1ST) Affirming mosques help gay Muslims reconcile faith, sexuality. NBCNEWS. Retrieved from


Krogt, C., (2016, June 23rd) Homosexuality and Islam: What does the Qur’an actually say about gay people? PinkNews. Retrieved from


Bukhārī, M. I. (1966). Sahih Bukhari. Karachi: Muhammad Sarid.


Yusof, M.Z. bin., Abdul-Kadir, N bin., Ibrahim, M. bin., Ahmad, Khader bin., Noor, M. bin., Saadon, S.A.bin., (2015) Haith Sahih On Behavior OF LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender) Department of Islamic Development Malaysia. Retrieved from


Muslim, -H.-Q., & Mundhirī, A. -A. A.-Q. (2000). Mukhtaṣar Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim =: The tarnslation of the meaning of the summarized Sahih Muslim: Arabic-English. Riyad: Darussalam.


Bond University. (1994). The translation of the meanings of summarized Sahih Al-Bukhari: Arabic-English. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Maktaba Dar-us-Salam.


Bukhārī, M. I., & Khan, M. M. (1971). The translation of the meanings of Sahih al-Bukhari. Medina: al-Munawwara Islamic University.


Bayhaqi, Abu Bakr Ahmad bin al-Husain al- (1410H), Shu`ab al-Iman.

Ditahqiqkan oleh Muhammad al-Sa‘id Basyuni Zaghlul, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Alami




[1] Specified, fixed Punishment regarding Islamic Law instructed by God derived from The Qur’an and Sunnah (traditions) of The Prophet of Allah.

[2] Ibn as-Salaah said: Major sins have indications such as: the stipulation of hadd punishments for such acts; a warning of punishment in Hell and the like in the Qur’an or Sunnah; a description of the doer as an evildoer; and mention of a curse upon the one who does it.

[3] Note this is the norm for reproduction amongst man apart from Adam (Peace be upon him) as Allah mentions “Who perfected everything which He created and began the creation of man from clay. Then He made his posterity out of the extract of a liquid disdained.” (As-Sajdah; 32:7-8)

[4] Sahih Muslim 338, In-book reference: Book 3, The Book of Menstruation, Hadith 90.  USC-MSA Web (English) reference Book 3, Hadith 667

[5] Sunnan Abu Dawood 4018, In-book reference: Book 33, Book of Hot Baths, Hadith 10

[6] It was narrated from Ibn`Abbas that `Umar bin Khattab said: “I fear that after a long time has passed, some will say: ‘I do not find (the sentence of) stoning in the Book of Allah (ﷺ),’ and they will go astray by abandoning one of the obligations enjoined by Allah (SWT). Rather stoning is a must if a man is married (or previously married) and proof is established, or if pregnancy results or if he admits it. I have read it (in the Quran). “And if an old man and an old woman commit adultery, stone them both.” The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) stoned (adulterers) and we stoned (them) after him.’ ”


[7] Sunnan Abu Dawood 4098, In-book reference: Book 34, Book of Clothing, Hadith 79. English translation: Book 33, Hadith 4087

[8] Sahih al-Bukhari 6834, In-book reference: Book 86, Book of Limits and Punishments set by Allah (Hudood), Hadith 60

[9] Jami’ at-Tirmidhi 1456, In-book reference: Book 17, Hadith 40

[10] English reference: Vol. 3, Book 20, Hadith 2562

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